BIFMA X5.41

Large Occupant Public and Lounge Seating

Standard for Large Occupant Public and Lounge Seating: ANSI/BIFMA X5.41BIFMA X5.41 Large Occupant Public and Lounge Seating was released on May 24, 2021, by the Business Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association. This standard is for individuals having a body mass between 400 lbs and 600 lbs which equates to the 99th percentile person in the US. BIFMA X5.4 is for occupants with a body mass up to 275 lbs. BIFMA X5.41 is split into two levels:

  • 41-400 for 400 lb users and
  • 41-600 for 600 lb users

To a large extent BIFMA X5.4 and X5.41 are similar; the test procedures are the same, however, most of the loads and forces were increased in the latter. For chairs to qualify to BIFMA X5.41 they must have a minimum seat width of 22 inches for X5.41-400 and 26 inches for X5.41-600.

As in BIFMA X5.4, there are four seating “styles”, which apply to both single and multiple seating configurations:

  • Style A: With arm(s) and with backrest
  • Style B: With arm(s) and without backrest
  • Style C: Without arms and with backrest
  • Style D: Without arms and without backrest

The table below shows which tests need to be done on which chair style, for single and multiple seating configurations and if the feature tested is available and the test applicable:

Test #Test DescriptionSingle Seating StyleMultiple Seating Style
ABCDABCD
5Back strength test – Horizontal – StaticXXXX
6Back strength test – Vertical – StaticXXXX
7Backrest Durability test – Horizontal – CyclicXXXX
8Backrest Durability test – Vertical – CyclicXXXX
9Arm strength test – Horizontal – StaticXXXX
10Arm strength test – Vertical – StaticXXXX
11Arm Dur. test – Hor. Cycl. Multiple PositionsXX
12Arm Dur. test – Vert. Cycl. Multiple PositionsXX
13Arm Dur. For Single Seat UnitsXX
14Seating Durability Test – Cyclic ImpactXXXXXXXX
15Drop Test – DynamicXXXXXXXX
16Leg strength testXXXXXXXX
17Unit drop test – DynamicXXXXXXXX
18Caster/Unit Base Durability Test for Pedestal Base UnitsXXXXXXXX
19Swivel Test – CyclicXXXX
20Tilt mechanism test – CyclicXXXX
21Stability TestsXXXXXXXX
22Tablet arm load ease test – cyclicXXXXXXXX
23Tablet arm static load testXXXXXXXX
24Structural Durability test – Side-to-side – CyclicXXXXXXXX
25Cycle Test for Recliners – Backrest and/or Legrest Mechanism DurabilityXXXX
26Legrest Strength Test – Static LoadXXXX
27Footrest Static Load Test for Stools – VerticalXXXXXXXX
28Footrest Durability Test for Stools – Vertical – CyclicXXXXXXXX
29Seat Width MeasurementXXXXXXXX

To download a PDF version of this table, please click on this button.

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In addition, we have included a test-by-test comparison between this standard and BIFMA X5.4 to give you a better understanding of the differences between both standards.

ANSI/BIFMA X5.41-2021ANSI/BIFMA X5.4-2020ComparisonConclusion
SectionX5.41-400X5.41-600
1. Scope400 lb user is the basis of the standard (99th percentile)600 lb user is the basis of the standard (99th percentile)275 lb user is the basis of the standard (95th percentile)X5.41 has a higher user weight than X5.4
2. Definitions: seat or seating position: Determine number of seating positions by dividing unit width by 31″
X5.41-400: minimum seat width=22″
seat or seating position: Determine number of seating positions by dividing unit width by 35″
X5.41-600: minimum seat width=26″
seat or seating position: Determine number of seating positions by dividing unit width by 28″X5.41 determines the seating positions using a larger denominator than X5.4.
X5.41 has added seat width requirements.
3. GeneralNo difference.No difference.No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
4. Classification and Applicable TestsSeat width measurement test is applicableNo seat width measurement required.BIFMA X5.41 has an additional seat width measurement test.X5.41 covers X5.4
5. Backrest Strength Test – Horizontal – StaticFunctional Load: 150 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 250 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 10 seconds.
Functional Load: 200 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 300 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 10 seconds.
Functional Load: 150 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 250 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 10 seconds.
Higher force applied in X5.41-600X5.41 covers X5.4
6. Backrest Strength Test – Vertical – StaticFunctional Load: 200 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 300 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 10 seconds.
Functional Load: 200 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 300 lbf applied to each seating position (max 2) for 10 seconds.
No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
7. Backrest Durability Test – Horizontal – CyclicLoad applied to backrests: 75 lbf
Load on other seats: 350 lbs
120,000 cycles
Load applied to backrests: 100 lbf
Load on other seats: 540 lbs
120,000 cycles
Load applied to backrests: 75 lbf
Load on other seats: 240 lbs
120,000 cycles
The force applied to the backrest and the load on other seats are both higher in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
8. Backrest Durability Test – Vertical – CyclicLoad applied to backrests: 200 lbf
10,000 cycles
Load applied to backrests: 200 lbf
10,000 cycles
No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
9. Arm Strength Test – Horizontal – StaticFunctional Load:
-Arm distance < 35″: 100 lbf for 1 minute
-Arm distance ≥ 35″: 133 lbf for 1 minute
Proof Load:
-Arm distance < 35″: 150 lbf for 10 seconds
-Arm distance ≥ 35″: 200 lbf for 10 seconds
Functional Load:
-Arm distance < 35″: 100 lbf for 1 minute
-Arm distance ≥ 35″: 133 lbf for 1 minute
Proof Load:
-Arm distance < 35″: 150 lbf for 10 seconds
-Arm distance ≥ 35″: 200 lbf for 10 seconds
No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
10. Arm Strength Test – Vertical – StaticFunctional Load:
-Armrest width > 3″: 200 lbf for 1 minute
-Armrest width ≤ 3″: 169 lbf for 1 minute
Proof Load:
-Armrest width > 3″: 300 lbf for 10 seconds
-Armrest width ≤ 3″: 253 lbf for 10 seconds
Functional Load:
-Armrest width > 3″: 200 lbf for 1 minute
-Armrest width ≤ 3″: 169 lbf for 1 minute
Proof Load:
-Armrest width > 3″: 300 lbf for 10 seconds
-Armrest width ≤ 3″: 253 lbf for 10 seconds
No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
11. Arm Durability Test for Multiple Seat Units – Horizontal – Cyclic Note to use Test #13 when armrests are included between seating positions.
Force applied: 100 lbf
50,000 cycles
Force applied: 100 lbf
50,000 cycles
X5.41 has note that refers to Test #13 when armrests are included between seating positions. Otherwise, no difference between methods.Methods are equivalent when no armrests included between seating positions.
12. Arm Durability Test for Multiple Seat Units – Vertical – Cyclic Note to use Test #13 when armrests are included between seating positions.
Force applied: 150 lbf
10,000 cycles
Force applied: 150 lbf
10,000 cycles
X5.41 has note that refers to Test #13 when armrests are included between seating positions. Otherwise, no difference between methods.Methods are equivalent when no armrests included between seating positions.
13. Arm Durability test – Angular – Cyclic Added statement that test applies to units with armrests between seating positions.
Force applied: 100 lbf
60,000 cycles
Added statement that test applies to units with armrests between seating positions.
Force applied: 125 lbf
60,000 cycles
Force applied: 90 lbf
60,000 cycles
X5.41 has note that states this method is applicable to units with armrests included between seating positions. Loads in X5.41 are higher.For single seat units, X5.41 covers X5.4. For multi-seat units with armrests between seating positions, methods are not equivalent.
14. Seating Durability Tests – Cyclic Test bag: 200 lbs
Drop height: 1.4″ above uncompressed seat
Load on other seats: 350 lbs
100,000 cycles
Test bag: 225 lbs
Drop height: 1.4″ above uncompressed seat
Load on other seats: 540 lbs
100,000 cycles
Test bag: 125 lbs
Drop height: 1.4″ above uncompressed seat
Load on other seats: 240 lbs
100,000 cycles
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
15. Drop Tests – DynamicFunctional Load: 250 lb test bag
Proof Load: 350 lb test bag
Drop height: 6″ above uncompressed seat
Load on other seats: 350 lbs
Functional Load: 275 lb test bag
Proof Load: 400 lb test bag
Drop height: 6″ above uncompressed seat
Load on other seats: 540 lbs
Functional Load: 225 lb test bag
Proof Load: 300 lb test bag
Drop height: 6″ above uncompressed seat
Load on other seats: 240 lbs
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
16.3 Leg Strength Test – Front Load TestFunctional Load: 100 lbf applied to each front leg for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 150 lbf applied to each front leg for 10 seconds.
Functional Load: 125 lbf applied to each front leg for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 190 lbf applied to each front leg for 10 seconds.
Functional Load: 75 lbf applied to each front leg for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 150 lbf (max) applied to each front leg for 10 seconds.
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
16.4 Leg Strength Test – Side Load TestFunctional Load: 100 lbf applied to a front and rear leg individually for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 150 lbf applied to a front and rear leg individually for 10 seconds.
Functional Load: 75 lbf applied to a front and rear leg individually for 1 minute.
Proof Load: 150 lbf (max) applied to a front and rear leg individually for 10 seconds.
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
17. Unit Drop Test – DynamicDrop heights based on unit weight from Table 2Drop heights based on unit weight from Table 2.No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
18.1 Caster/Unit Base Durability Test for Pedestal Base UnitsLoad on seat: 400 lbs
25,500 cycles
Load on seat: 600 lbs
25,500 cycles
Load on seat: 270 lbs
25,500 cycles
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
18.2 Caster/Unit Base Durability Test for Units with LegsLoad on seat: 400 lbs
25,500 cycles for 1-seater units.
250 cycles over obstacles for multi-seater units.
Load on seat: 600 lbs
25,500 cycles for 1-seater units.
250 cycles over obstacles for multi-seater units.
Load on seat: 270 lbs
25,500 cycles for 1-seater units.
250 cycles over obstacles for multi-seater units.
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
19. Swivel Test – CyclicLoad on seat: 400 lbs
120,000 cycles
Load on seat: 600 lbs
120,000 cycles
Load on seat: 270 lbs
120,000 cycles
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
20. Tilt/Rocker/Glider Mechanism Test – CyclicLoad on seat: 350 lbs
200,000 cycles
Load on seat: 540 lbs
200,000 cycles
Load on seat: 240 lbs
200,000 cycles
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
21.3 Rear-Stability for Non-tilting Units-6 disks
-Force calculated from formula in 21.3.1j or 20.9 lbf
-Force applied 0.25 inch from top of disk
-6 disks
-Force calculated from formula in 21.3.1j or 20.9 lbf
-Force applied 0.25 inch from top of disk
No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
21.4 Rear-Stability for Tilting Units13 disks13 disksNo difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
21.5 Front Stability for Units Less than 80 lbs175 lbf vertical load applied at 2.4″ from front edge135 lbf vertical load applied at 2.4″ from front edgeHigher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
21.6 Front Stability for Units ≥ 80 lbs.32 lbf downward at 45° to the test platform.32 lbf downward at 45° to the test platform.No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
22. Tablet Arm Load Ease Test – CyclicLoad applied: 55 lbs
100,000 cycles
Load applied: 55 lbs
100,000 cycles
No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
23. Tablet Arm Load Test – StaticLoad applied: 150 lbsLoad applied: 150 lbsNo difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.
24. Structural Durability Test – Side-to-Side – CyclicLoad applied: 100 lbf
Load on other seats: 350 lbs
25,000 cycles
Load applied: 100 lbf
Load on other seats: 540 lbs
25,000 cycles
Load applied: 75 lbf
Load on other seats: 240 lbs
25,000 cycles
Higher load applied to the unit  and higher loads on seats in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
25. Cyclic Test for Recliners – Backrest and/or Legrest Mechanism DurabilityLoad applied on backrest: 180 lbs
Load on seat: 180 lbs
Load on legrest: 35 lbs
25,000 cycles
Load applied on backrest: 270 lbs
Load on seat: 270 lbs
Load on legrest: 50 lbs
25,000 cycles
Load applied on backrest: 124 lbs
Load on seat: 124 lbs
Load on legrest: 27 lbs
25,000 cycles
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
26. Legrest Strength Test – Static LoadLoad applied to legrest: 40 lbsLoad applied to legrest: 60 lbsLoad applied to legrest: 30 lbsHigher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
27. Footrest Static Load Test for Stools – VerticalFunctional Load: 150 lbf for 1 minute and then 300 lbf for 1 minute
Proof Load: 400 lbf for 10 seconds
Functional Load: 100 lbf for 1 minute and then 200 lbf for 1 minute
Proof Load: 300 lbf for 10 seconds
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
28. Footrest Durability Test for Stools – Vertical – CyclicLoad applied: 300 lbf
50,000 cycles
Load applied: 200 lbf
50,000 cycles
Higher loads in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
29. Seat Width MeasurementMinimum seat width: 22 inchesMinimum seat width: 26 inchesThis test not in X5.4.New section in X5.41.X5.41 covers X5.4
Appendices A, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, MInformativeInformativeN/ANo impact.
Appendices B, INo difference with X5.4.No difference with X5.41.No difference between X5.4 and X5.41.Both methods equivalent.

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